For undergraduate and graduate students
In one of your classes, the teacher publicly accuses you of having plagiarised the most recent assignment that you have handed in. While having correctly inserted the references that you have used in your assignment, some of your wordings are rather similar to the originals. When you ask for further explanation of what you are supposed to have plagiarised, the teacher does not respond. In consequence, you turn to your academic unit to clarify how you can proceed in this case. Afterwards, you receive an email from your teacher in which she/he gets very angry with you having turned to an independent third party to look into your case.
For PhD students
You and your team discovered some crucial findings after analysing the data, and you are now working on publishing the results. The institution has sent a senior researcher to oversee your findings, because these will impact the reputation of the research community. The findings are correct and significant, but the senior researcher demands that he/she should be named as the main contributor/author in the publication.